Coconut palms are cultivated north of south Florida to roughly Cocoa Beach on the East Coast and Clearwater on the West Coast. [62] This figure has been questioned based on the extremely small sample size that forms the basis of the paper that makes this claim. In Florida, wild populations of coconut palms extend up the East Coast from Key West to Jupiter Inlet, and up the West Coast from Marco Island to Sarasota. It can be used in liquid form as would other vegetable oils, or in solid form as would butter or lard. (2009). Coconut is fibrous one-seeded drupe . [106], The sap can be reduced by boiling to create a sweet syrup or candy such as te kamamai in Kiribati or dhiyaa hakuru and addu bondi in the Maldives. The whole fruit, its every item is utilised in every aspect and it offers some vital nutrients. Coconut is considered a drupe, or a fruit with a hard covering over the seed. The exocarp and the mesocarp make up the husk of the coconut. Its fruits are similar to the coconut, but smaller. [36] In west-central India, numerous fossils of Cocos-like fruits, leaves, and stems have been recovered from the Deccan Traps. Drupes have a fleshy part covering a hard shell containing the seed. Coconut oil has gained quite the attention over the past few months. Santos, G.A., Batugal, P.A., Othman, A., Baudouin, L., and Labouisse J.P. 1996. What is a Drupe? Botanically, the coconut fruit is a drupe, a fleshy fruit with a thin skin and a central stone containing the seed, just like a coffee cherry or a plum. It is commonly used in cooking, especially for frying. Most people with tree nut allergies can safely eat coconut and its products without any symptoms of a reaction. As development continues, cellular layers of endosperm deposit along the walls of the coconut, becoming the edible coconut "flesh". Answer: Coconut is a drupe . [citation needed], Among modern C. nucifera, two major types or variants occur: a thick-husked, angular fruit and a thin-husked, spherical fruit with a higher proportion of endosperm reflect a trend of cultivation in C. nucifera. To give an example the biomechanics of peanut and almond allergies are completely different. But we had laid about half among the special provisions below deck, with the waves washing around them. However, when using loose definitions, the coconut can be all three: a fruit, a nut, and a seed. On fertile soil, a tall coconut palm tree can yield up to 75 fruits per year, but more often yields less than 30. [86] The annual rainy season known locally as khareef or monsoon makes coconut cultivation easy on the Arabian east coast. [42][43][44] Given proper care and growing conditions, coconut palms produce their first fruit in six to ten years, taking 15 to 20 years to reach peak production. [128], Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is a surfactant manufactured from coconut oil that is increasingly used as an ingredient in personal hygiene products and cosmetics, such as shampoos, liquid soaps, cleansers and antiseptics, among others. [20], In attempting to determine whether the species had originated in South America or Asia, a 2014 study proposed that it was neither, and that the species evolved on coral atolls in the Pacific. [74], In cooler climates (but not less than USDA Zone 9), a similar palm, the queen palm (Syagrus romanzoffiana), is used in landscaping. p. 254. This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 18:42. However, when using loose definitions, the coconut can be all three: a fruit, a nut, and a seed. And no coconut can float over the sea faster than a balsa raft moves with the wind behind it. The white flesh inside the hard woody shell is a part of the seed. Previous studies had assumed that the palm had either evolved in South America or Asia, and then dispersed from there. The young coconut has air in the husk and is filled with water so it is able to float in … [120], The roots are used as a dye, a mouthwash, and a folk medicine for diarrhea and dysentery. The term drupe comes from the word drupa meaning overripe olive. Explanation: Coconut fruit is a drupe. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS, "Reviving the Coconut Industry of the Philippines", "Coconut faces a looming global supply shortage, but could an Australian industry crack it? [citation needed], A full-sized coconut weighs about 1.4 kg (3.1 lb). The term comes from the word drupa, meaning overripe olive. Other types of large trees produce a single downward-growing tap root with a number of feeder roots growing from it. Spraying with wettable sulfur 0.4% or with Neem-based pesticides can give some relief, but is cumbersome and labor-intensive. Coconut palms are normally cultivated in hot and wet tropical climates. It is most strikingly displayed in Madagascar, an island settled by Austronesian sailors at around 2000 to 1500 BP. (i) The name of the part of coconut which is edible - Endosperm of coconut seed. Nor were there coconuts on the east side of the African coast until Vasco da Gama, nor in the Caribbean when first visited by Christopher Columbus. In the Malay language, it is pokok seribu guna ("the tree of a thousand uses"). Coconut water can be drunk fresh or used in cooking as in binakol. Every day, thousands of coconuts are broken, and some devotees break as many as 108 coconuts at a time as per the prayer. (April 2006). Options (a) Capsule (b) Drupe (c) Berry (d) Nut. The whole fruit, its every item is utilised in every aspect and it offers some vital nutrients. Drift models based on wind and ocean currents have shown that coconuts could not have drifted across the Pacific unaided. The jury is out on whether the coconut is a fruit, nut or seed. Coconut is a member of the palm family and is botanically, a drupe. They were commonly carried by Spanish ships as a source of fresh water. (2008). Plants are intolerant of cold weather and prefer copious precipitation, as well as full sunlight. Dwarf varieties are also available. This mite infests coconut plantations, and is devastating; it can destroy up to 90% of coconut production. Despite its name, coconut is first and foremost a drupe. The inner layer is woody part which is hard and that surrounds the seed. Who are the famous writers in region 9 Philippines? In 1987, a "coconut law" was signed by Governor Edwin Edwards exempting from insurance liability any decorated coconut "handed" from a Zulu float. Fishermen give an offering of coconut to the sea to celebrate the beginning of a new fishing season. Over the course of evolutionary time-scales the shifting atolls would have shortened the paths of colonization, meaning that any one coconut would not have to travel very far to find new land. [10], The specific name nucifera is Latin for 'nut-bearing'. [75] A sprouting coconut seed is the logo for Gerakan Pramuka Indonesia, the Indonesian scouting organization. [133] Irrespective of their religious affiliations, fishermen of India often offer it to the rivers and seas in the hopes of having bountiful catches. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. (2015), however, suggests that their diversity in New Zealand indicate that they evolved endemically, rather than being introduced to the islands by long-distance dispersal. It prefers areas with abundant sunlight and regular rainfall (1,500–2,500 mm [59–98 in] annually), which makes colonizing shorelines of the tropics relatively straightforward. Apical buds of adult plants are edible, and are known as "palm cabbage" or heart of palm. Only a few of the roots penetrate deep into the soil for stability. Flowering occurs continuously. [citation needed] They are also used in Hindu weddings as a symbol of prosperity. Coconut water can be fermented to produce coconut vinegar. 240 p. Bertrand, Mireille. Botanically, the coconut is classified as a fruit--more specifically, it is a drupe. [68], The coconut palm is damaged by the larvae of many Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species which feed on it, including the African armyworm (Spodoptera exempta) and Batrachedra spp. Coconuts are known for their versatility. While the ins and outs of coconut classifications may put us non-botanists in a daze, it’s a crucial decision for anyone with a … [109] The sap when fermented can also be made into coconut vinegar or various palm wines (which can be further distilled to make arrack). Other drupes are mangoes, avocados, cherries, olives and the stone fruits such as peaches, plums and apricots. Heyerdahl, Thor. No other fruit is as versatile as coconut. There are currently two major viewpoints on the origins of the genus Cocos, one in the Indo-Pacific, and another in South America. The coconut has cultural and religious significance in certain societies, particularly in India, where it is used in Hindu rituals. A coconut tree is also included in the country's national emblem and coat of arms. [27][28], A study in 2011 identified two highly genetically differentiated subpopulations of coconuts, one originating from Island Southeast Asia (the Pacific group) and the other from the southern margins of the Indian subcontinent (the Indo-Atlantic group). Perera, Champa K. Bandaranayake and Hugh C. Harries. Salunkhe, D.K., J.K. Chavan, R.N. In Asia, coconut shells are also used as bowls and in the manufacture of various handicrafts, including buttons carved from dried shell. [46], Botanically, the coconut fruit is a drupe, not a true nut. However, classification of plants can be a complicated matter for the average person. However, it is not native and display a genetic bottleneck resulting from a founder effect. [129], The coconut was a critical food item for the people of Polynesia, and the Polynesians brought it with them as they spread to new islands.[131]. The dried calyx is used as fuel in wood-fired stoves. Betel-nut may also be considered as a fibrous drupe like coconut although its endocarp is not so hard. [40], Cocos nucifera is a large palm, growing up to 30 m (100 ft) tall, with pinnate leaves 4–6 m (13–20 ft) long, and pinnae 60–90 cm (2–3 ft) long; old leaves break away cleanly, leaving the trunk smooth. [citation needed], In 2010, Indonesia increased its coconut production. Tempurung, as the shell is called in the Malay language, can be used as a soup bowl and—if fixed with a handle—a ladle. Many insect pests and diseases affect the species and are a nuisance for commercial production. Its meat is sweetened, cut into strands, and sold in glass jars as coconut strings, sometimes labeled as "gelatinous mutant coconut". It is mostly grown in the tropical areas and is thought to have originated somewhere in the (2009), assigned it to Cocos based on the size and the ridged shape of the fruit. Does the oil from this “drupe” (aka fruit with a hard shell) really treat or cure everything under the sun or is it just a dupe? This, together with their use of the South American sweet potato, suggests that Austronesian peoples may have sailed as far east as the Americas.[65]. [107], Coconut sap, usually extracted from cut inflorescence stalks is sweet when fresh and can be drunk as is like in tuba fresca of Mexico. For other uses, see, "Coconut tree" redirects here. In India, the woven coconut leaves are used to build wedding marquees, especially in the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. The immature seeds are infested and desapped by larvae staying in the portion covered by the perianth of the immature seed; the seeds then drop off or survive deformed. Some dried coconut is purely coconut, but others are manufactured with other ingredients, such as sugar, propylene glycol, salt, and sodium metabisulfite. In Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore and Tirupur regions top the production list. The coir is used to make brooms in Cambodia.[113]. [32] Thor Heyerdahl provides an alternative, and much shorter, estimate based on his first-hand experience crossing the Pacific Ocean on the raft Kon-Tiki: "The nuts we had in baskets on deck remained edible and capable of germinating the whole way to Polynesia. The main coconut-producing area in the Middle East is the Dhofar region of Oman, but they can be grown all along the Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, and Red Sea coasts, because these seas are tropical and provide enough humidity (through seawater evaporation) for coconut trees to grow. The Pacific group is the only one to display clear genetic and phenotypic indications that they were domesticated; including dwarf habit, self-pollination, and the round "niu vai" fruit morphology with larger endosperm-to-husk ratios. Coconut trunks are used for building small bridges and huts; they are preferred for their straightness, strength, and salt resistance. [92][93] The milk can be used to produce virgin coconut oil by controlled heating and removal of the oil fraction. Research into countermeasures to these pests has as of 2009[update] yielded no results; researchers from the Kerala Agricultural University and the Central Plantation Crop Research Institute, Kasaragode, continue to work on countermeasures. It has applications in furniture and specialized construction, as notably demonstrated in Manila's Coconut Palace. Perera, Lalith, Suriya A.C.N. A drupe is a stone fruit with a hard covering enclosing the seed (similar to a peach or olive). In Cambodia, the roots are used in traditional medicine as a treatment for dysentery. The coconut's obscure origin in foreign lands led to the notion of using cups made from the shell to neutralise poisoned drinks. Coconut fruit is a . Werth, E. (1933). It is offered during worship to a Hindu god or goddess. Mathur, P.N. Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? It is ovoid in shape with three sides divided by ridges. (2008). Just kidding. The player buys some small balls which are then thrown as hard as possible at coconuts balanced on sticks. Cocos-like fossils of fruits include "Cocos" intertrappeansis, "Cocos" pantii, and "Cocos" sahnii. ; Diekmann, M. It is claimed that they evolved to disperse significant distances via marine currents. Some seasonal variation is tolerated, with good growth where mean summer temperatures are between 28 and 37 °C (82 and 99 °F), and survival as long as winter temperatures are above 4–12 °C (39–54 °F); they will survive brief drops to 0 °C (32 °F). [132] Often it is decorated with bright metal foils and other symbols of auspiciousness. The seed is protected by a thick, stony shell, or endocarp, and is partially filled with a liquid known as coconut water. Newly germinated coconuts contain an edible fluff of marshmallow-like consistency called sprouted coconut or coconut sprout, produced as the endosperm nourishes the developing embryo. Though Kerala has the largest number of coconut trees, in terms of production per hectare, Tamil Nadu leads all other states. [135], The flowers are used sometimes in wedding ceremonies in Cambodia. Quite interestingly, a coconut is all of these: a seed, a fruit and a nut! Coconuts sold in the shops of non-tropical countries often have their husk removed. The coconut is the nut of a coco, though nut here uses the looser meaning of the term, as botanically it is considered a drupe. In the Philippines, the coconut is commonly called the "tree of life". Thus the coconut as you know it in non-tropical countries is the pit or seed of the coconut fruit. [50] The root system consists of an abundance of thin roots that grow outward from the plant near the surface. Mesocarp in some cases edible. (January 27, 1967). He explained how at Guam "they eat coconuts" ("mangiano cochi") and that the natives there also "anoint the body and the hair with coconut and beniseed oil" ("ongieno el corpo et li capili co oleo de cocho et de giongioli"). Unlike the UAE, which grows mostly non-native dwarf or hybrid coconut cultivars imported from Florida for ornamental purposes, the slender, tall Omani coconut cultivars are relatively well-adapted to the Middle East's hot dry seasons, but need longer to reach maturity. CocoNUT. [123][124][125] Amphioctopus marginatus is the first invertebrate known to be able to use tools.[124][126]. These provide substantial circumstantial evidence that deliberate Austronesian voyagers were involved in carrying coconuts across the Pacific Ocean and that they could not have dispersed worldwide without human agency. Before modern construction methods were introduced, coconut leaves were used as roofing material for many houses in the islands, while coconut timber was used to build houses and boats. These vary by the taste of the coconut water and color of the fruit, as well as other genetic factors. For example, the Polynesian and Melanesian term niu; Tagalog and Chamorro term niyog; and the Malay word nyiur or nyior. ; Batugal, P.; Bonnot, F. (2008). [90], It is one of the most useful trees in the world.[48]. A drupe is a fruit which has a fleshy part enclosing a hard part with a seed inside. [77][78][79], Two important coconut products were first developed in the Philippines, macapuno and nata de coco. [34][35] The vast majority of Cocos-like fossils have been recovered generally from only two regions in the world: New Zealand and west-central India. [116] In parts of South India, the shell and husk are burned for smoke to repel mosquitoes. Ingredient Lists); Major Food Allergens (food source names and examples)", "Coconut – Fruit Of Lustre In Indian Culture", "How the Zulu coconut was saved from extinction", Coconut revival – new possibilities for the ‘tree of life’, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Coconut&oldid=992523859, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles with Portuguese-language sources (pt), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2018, Articles needing additional references from May 2016, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2009, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles needing additional references from August 2016, Articles containing Sanskrit-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Mean daily temperature above 12–13 °C (54–55 °F) every day of the year, Mean annual rainfall above 1,000 mm (39 in). ", "Indian state decides coconut trees are no longer trees but palms", "Coconut tree loses tree status in Goa – Times of India", "Medieval Sourcebook: Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa 1325–1354", "Australia has a lot of coconut palms — so why don't we have a coconut industry? More recently, genomic analysis of cultivated coconut (C. nucifera L.) has shed light on the movement. A recently discovered palm, Beccariophoenix alfredii from Madagascar, is nearly identical to the coconut, more so than the queen palm and can also be grown in slightly cooler climates than the coconut palm. A drupe consists of 3 layers: Dried coconut is also used as the filling for many chocolate bars. [32] If they were naturally distributed and had been in the Pacific for a thousand years or so, then we would expect the eastern shore of Australia, with its own islands sheltered by the Great Barrier Reef, to have been thick with coconut palms: the currents were directly into, and down along this coast. nana). In particular, the area around Salalah maintains large coconut plantations similar to those found across the Arabian Sea in Kerala. Correct Answer: Drupe. The exocarp and mesocarp make up the "husk" of the coconuts. It noted that by using these small atolls, the species could easily island-hop. The queen palm was originally classified in the genus Cocos along with the coconut, but was later reclassified in Syagrus. In Australia, a Cocos-like fossil fruit, measuring 10 cm (3.9 in) × 9.5 cm (3.7 in), were recovered from the Chinchilla Sand Formation dated to the latest Pliocene or basal Pleistocene. [12] The earliest direct description is given by Cosmas Indicopleustes in his Topographia Christiana written around 545, referred to as "the great nut of India". However, both James Cook and William Bligh[64] (put adrift after the Bounty mutiny) found no sign of the nuts along this 2,000 km (1,200 mi) stretch when he needed water for his crew. As most of us know, we eat the outer portion of the fruit and discard the pit. It takes around 6,000 full-grown coconuts to produce one tonne of copra. A dried half coconut shell with husk can be used to buff floors. When did organ music become associated with baseball? A drupe is a fruit with a hard stony outer layer enclosing the seed. Adkins S.W., M. Foale and Y.M.S. typica) or dwarf (var. The endocarp is always stony. [35][36] Endt & Hayward (1997) have noted their resemblance to members of the South American genus Parajubaea, rather than Cocos, and propose a South American origin. [citation needed], In some parts of the world (Thailand and Malaysia), trained pig-tailed macaques are used to harvest coconuts. Technically speaking, botanists classify the coconut as a drupe, not a nut. Unfortunately, the answer is a little complicated. The young coconut plants need to be nursed and irrigated with drip pipes until they are old enough (stem bulb development) to be irrigated with brackish water or seawater alone, after which they can be replanted on the beaches. The problem is that some drupes can be classified as tree nuts. The name coconut is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco, meaning 'head' or 'skull' after the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features. [110][111], Coir (the fiber from the husk of the coconut) is used in ropes, mats, doormats, brushes, and sacks, as caulking for boats, and as stuffing fiber for mattresses. The term comes from the word drupa, meaning overripe olive. Severe frost is usually fatal, although they have been known to recover from temperatures of −4 °C (25 °F). He hypothesized that the coconut originated in the Americas, based on his belief that American coconut populations predated European contact and because he considered pan-tropical distribution by ocean currents improbable. Other definitions, the coconut can be all three: a fruit, a nut, and a seed. Botanically speaking, a coconut is a fibrous one-seeded drupe, also known as a dry drupe. [citation needed]. A drupe is a fruit with a fleshy external part with a pit and seed inside. [23] They are now almost ubiquitous between 26° N and 26° S except for the interiors of Africa and South America. However they are mainly present as decoration, and the Australian coconut industry is small; Australia is a net importer of coconut products. [citation needed]. It is a fleshy fruit with three distinct layers of pericarp. Another product of the coconut is coconut oil. , Brontispa longissima ( coconut leaf beetle ) feeds on young leaves, and Palmocarpon cocoides around! A coconut. [ 3 ] area around Salalah maintains large coconut plantations similar to those across. Retail market as a bunot in the Philippines, this alcoholic drink is called lambanog or `` coconut.... 2006 Save the Ladybug the three layers: the mesocarp make up the husk and shells be. [ 65 ], botanically, it is ovoid in shape with three distinct layers of deposit! Celebrated on a full moon day which usually signifies the end of monsoon season India! A nuisance for commercial cultivation in the Pacific Region of origin reflects the dependence the... Had laid about half among the special provisions below deck, with the coconut palm thrives on sandy and. The Indo-Malaya the moon last palm tree the list of drupes increasingly being used as a home for a or! Taste of the admixture events are limited to Madagascar and coastal east Africa and! 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