Mangroves are ecologically important plants in marine habitats that occupy the coastlines of many countries. The advantage of this fish pond is that there is a natural exchange of water from the sea, without the use of tap water. The major threats to mangroves in the Niger Delta are oil and gas exploration, deforestation, dredging, urbanization and Invasive Nypa palm species. Because of the large sizes of the stem they are often used for firewood and charcoal. In Australia, mangroves occur in small pockets around the coastline. (2011), and then to 8,349,500 ha by Hamilton and Casey (2016). This helps to provide extra support for the trees. The crabs eat mangrove leaves thereby contributing to litter fall, which help to enrich the mangrove soil. Species diversity indices indicates that among the mangroves Rhizophora racemosa had the highest abundance and species diversity (Table 2) while for the palm species, the nypa palm dominated (Table 3) and for the grass species, Dalbergia ecastophylum had the highest diversity (Table 4). The trees grow in groups and are self-sustaining and support each other. The highest rate of litter fall was recorded in the dry season, between November and March. This is because they enrich coastal waters and serve as supermarket of the sea. This soil strictly allows only grasses and other weed species grow on it. These areas include the east coast of Africa, Australia, and New Zealand where mangroves occur 10-15° farther south. The red mangroves are adapted to the swampy soils. It is similar to the value derived by  in south-eastern Nigeria (i.e. Our team is growing all the time, so we’re always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. There are still some mangroves that can be seen at the foreground. A representative soil sample was collected and grinded into fine particles, such that it can pass through 0.5 mm sieve and air dried. The KH2PO4 Extraction Method was used to analyze sulphate content of the soil. Northern extensions of this limit occur in Japan (31° 22′N°) and Bermuda (32° 20′N); southern extensions are in New Zealand (38°03′S), Australia (38° 45′S) and on the east coast of South Africa (32°59′S) ; while there are robust mangrove population on the western coast of Africa with mangroves in Nigeria as one of the most dominant. Soil physico-chemical characteristics of different mangrove forest in Okrika, Niger Delta, Nigeria. An example of a disturbed soil is the sand filled mangrove forest in Buguma, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Similar to corals, the region of greatest mangrove diversity is in Southeast Asia, particularly around the Indonesian Archipelago (Burke et al., 2001). The bark is chopped into small pieces and put in locally made alcohol to dissolve; lemon is added and left for some time after which it is consumed as medicinal herb for curing several ailments. The most … INTRODUCTION Mangrove is one of plants which grow abundantly in coastal area, laguna and the brackishwater with saline soil condition . Forty species of mangroves dominate approximately 75% of the world’s tropical coastlines between 25° N and 25° S. In certain locations, this range extends beyond these limits due to the movement of unusually warm waters from the equator. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. The wood ash that comes out after the burning of the wood is used as soil enhancer and disease destroyer in farms when it is spread on the soil surface or on the leaves of crops. The problem of data gap in Africa is often cited in many literatures with little done to correct this trend. The positions of the different species of mangroves in the coastal areas had given them the ability to adapt to their difficult environment. Distribution of fish found on seagrass beds, mangroves and coral reefs: Surveys found 113 species of fish from 32 families in the three habitat types. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. The mangrove stems are cut to make stakes. Poles from mangrove are used to connect electric wires, which supplies electricity from one part of the town to another. Nutrient contents varied along the 20 m transect from seaward to landward directions. 20 ml of concentrate H2SO4 was added rapidly and directing the stream into the suspension. The mangrove forest serves as source of water from streams and lakes. This shows that all aspects of oil exploration are inimical to the mangroves right from the pre-exploratory, exploratory and post exploratory stages. Mangrove Species Distribution and Composition, Adaptive Strategies and Ecosystem Services in the Niger River Delta, Nigeria, Mangrove Ecosystem Ecology and Function, Sahadev Sharma, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.79028. Mangroves have low growth in muddy soil because the soil suffocate their lenticels, which may lead to death. The mangrove forest is rich in biodiversity and has organism such as monkeys, guinea fowl, periwinkle, mudskipper, crabs (Goniopsis pelii), birds (i.e. Shannon wiener diversity indices (H) of major mangrove species in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Mean annual rainfall ranges from over 4000 mm in the coastal towns, and decreases inland to 3000 mm in the mid-delta area; and slightly less than 2400 mm in the northern parts of the region. They originated from a hot environment  and their distribution is influenced by meteorological events  such as temperature  and precipitation . Mangroves grow in sheltered tropical and subtropical coastal areas across the globe. Built by scientists, for scientists. It is estimated to cover between 5000 and 8500 km3 . However, the current threat to mangroves that can lead to their extinction is the interaction of all the factors. Similarly, the immobility of benthic organisms predisposes them to death from pollution. The mangrove forest serves as sites for libation and ancestral activities by natives who visit the area to derive some spiritual powers. In addition, studies support that mangroves are facultative halophytes and that salinity provides a competitive advantage by exclusion of non-mangrove vegetation rather than being a physiological need , so the influence of salinity in mangrove distribution is complex and need site specific measurements. Constant destruction of the mangroves by humans had, however, made them to regenerate and grow afresh, making them have less significant wood for charcoals production. Some mangrove species found include: Rhizophora harrisonii and Laguncularia racemosa. The litter enriches the soil and supplies the raw materials needed for decomposition . … Thus, management effort of rehabilitating degraded forest must be done to improve carbon sequestration and productivity in unprotected mangroves forest. The coolest months are June through to September during the peak of rainfall during the wet season. The Ten Thousand Islands in southwest Florida has the highest concentrations of mangroves in the state. Inland areas are sandy and mostly inhabited by button wood mangroves (Conocarpus erectus) and grass species while seaward areas are mostly inhabited by red (Rhizophora racemosa), black (Laguncularia racemosa) and white (Avicennia germinans) mangroves species. The red mangrove sepal has an enclosure that contains a sweet tasting liquid that is sucked. Different species of crabs such as Callinectes pallidus, Uca tangeri, Ostrea tulipa and Goniopsis pelii are also affected by pollutants. The importance value (IV) of the mangroves was calculated using the equations of : The importance value is a quantitative parameter used to show the significance of each species within a stand, and it includes the summation of relative density, relative frequency and relative dominance. Climate change is expected to alter existing coastal habitats in Grenada, jeopardizing the island's mangroves, such as through the conversion of basin mangroves to fringe habitats as storm surges open barrier beaches, increasing tidal action and flood duration. They have green leaves and hairy round seeds (Figure 1c). By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. The suspension was later emptied into a funnel containing Whatman No. Rhizophora species) . Termites also build huge termitarium on the tree trunks, which further provides extra security for the plants by warding off intruders and predators. Mar Drugs. To evaluate the adaptive strategies of mangroves vis-a-vis their significance to the environment. The combination of nutrients and red soil water with fibrous materials is what has made the mangrove a biodiversity hot spot. The development of site and species specific allometric relationship is best done using harvesting method . Aroloye O. Numbere (November 7th 2018). Conductivity was measured in field using conductivity meter. The mangrove trees conserve water resources and serve as wind breaks in many communities. In Victoria and South Australia their distribution is limited and there is only one species - Avicennia marina, the white or grey mangrove.These occupy the most southerly, and highest latitude location for mangroves in the world. Muddy soil supports nypa palms while sandy soil supports different grass species, core mangrove soil supports red mangroves (R. racemosa), which are the most dominant of all species, with importance value (Iv) of 52.02. Tree barks and roots are mixed with other components to produce medicinal herbs that are used to treat some ailments. Rhizophora species i.e. Black mangroves may be found even farther north to Jacksonville on the east coast and into the panhandle in the gulf. The monthly temperature ranges between 26 and 30°C. Aim Our scientific understanding of the extent and distribution of mangrove forests of the world is inadequate. Mangroves are one of Florida's true natives. A major observation during field work is that mangroves when cut never grow back rather the area from where they are cut is over taken by weeds  which forms gradients around the wetland soil. Shannon wiener diversity indices (H) of weed species commonly found around mangrove forest in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. The distribution of mangrove forests is considered critical baseline information, since knowing where there … How? OK refers to Okrika. Pollution impacts flora and fauna, for instance oils from spillages clog the roots of mangroves causing outright death through the suffocation of the lenticels, leaf yellowing and defoliation [31, 32]. Lastly, maintaining high diversity of mangroves is crucial to ensure the health and productivity of coastal zones . The soil samples were collected with a hand held augur (Germany) and placed in a black cellophane bag. Living along the interface between land and sea, the mangrove ecosystemssupportgeneticallydiversegroupsofaquaticandterrestrial organisms. Mangrove of the Niger Delta, Nigeria is one of the most productive systems in terms of biodiversity, and ecosystem services in the world, but because of lack of data it is often not mentioned in many literatures. Global mangrove distributions have fluctuated throughout human and geological history. Metal concentrations were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS: model X7, Thermo Electron, Winsford-Cheshire, UK). There are three distinct areas of seagrass diversity in the Pacific region: the Indo-Pacific (areas around Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea), the seas around Japan, and southwest Australia (Spalding et al., 2002). The dbh for trees with small girth were measured with a vernier caliper at an accuracy of 0.01 cm while the stems of larger girth were measured with tapes (Forestry suppliers Inc., Jackson, MS). They can also survive invasion by nypa palm propagules as long as their soil quality is not reduced as a result of the actions of solid and liquid waste. They can also survive some forms of selective deforestation aimed at harvesting firewood for human use. They are mostly old growth forest that had been growing for the past 20–30 years without disturbance. They have currently displaced 5% of the entire mangrove forest in the last 20 years  caused mainly by oil and gas exploration, urbanization and deforestation , which had opened up the forest to further exploitation. Soil physico-chemical characteristics of different mangrove forest in Buguma, Niger Delta, Nigeria. By Alberto Sánchez and José D. Carriquiry. The Niger Delta region makes up 4% of Nigerian population. In addition, the sampled area of Fernandina is a channel, well protected from wave … Mangroves of Grenada and the Grenadines represent significant habitat within the regional context of the Eastern Caribbean. When the red mangrove evolved in the Cretaceous, Florida was a great coral reef in shallow seas. Most mangroves live on muddy soils, but they also can grow on sand, peat, and coral rock. Mangroves of the Niger River Delta grade into several plant communities from land to sea. This is the reason why this study is embarked upon to help bridge the data gap. Submitted: June 24th 2017Reviewed: May 22nd 2018Published: November 7th 2018, Home > Books > Mangrove Ecosystem Ecology and Function. Rhizophora racemosa was the most dominant species in all locations. The distribution of mangrove fauna in relation to water quality has been described quantitatively . Several furniture products are derived from trees cut from the rain forest. Anthropogenic activities such as oil and gas exploration, deforestation, dredging, urbanization and invasive nypa palms had changed the soil type from swampy to sandy mud soil. It is used by a large number of people for outdoor cooking especially during occasions and festivities. The mangrove despite its usefulness to man and the environment has faced a lot of anthropogenic disturbances, which if not curtailed will lead to the final extinction of the mangroves. Mangrove forests are relaxation points for many citizens who visit the area on site seeing trips. 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